Sunday, October 03, 2010

Tectonic setting of Kalimantan, Indonesia

The tectonic features of Kalimantan are divided into two part:
                           1. Tertiary Basins

2. Pre to Early Tertiary Highs

1. Tertiary Basins:


The Barito Basin is situated along the southeastern margin of the Schwaner Shield in South Kalimantan
The Kutei Basin is the largest (165,000 km ) and the deepest (12,000 – 14,000 meters) Tertiary sedimentary basin in Indonesia.
The Tarakan Basin encompasses the basinal areas in NE Kalimantan
The Sandakan Basin, located in the southern portion of the Sulu Sea, with Tertiary deltaic complex in the south of the basin

2. Pre to Early Tertiary Highs :

The oldest fossiliferous rocks of the North- west Kalimantan domain are Late Carboniferous limestone and marble containing diagnostic fusulinids.


Meliat Formation (Middle Miocene)
Description: Interbedded sandstone, claystone and shale with coal intercalation.
Tabul Formation (Late Miocene)
Description: Interbedded claystone, mudstone, sandstone, limestone and coal in the upper part.
Sajao Formation (Plio-Pleistocene)
Description: Quartz sandstone, claystone, siltstone, coal, lignite and conglomerate.
Lengap Formation (Late Miocene)
Description: White tuff, chalky, conglomerate coarse grain sandstone, thick coal seams.
Latih Formation (Miocene)
Description: Quartz sandstone, claystone, siltstone and coal in the upper part, intercalation sandy shale and limestone on the lower part, coal seam 0.2 to 5.5 meter thick.
Labanan Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene)
Description: Alternation of polymict conglomarate, sandstone, siltstone, claystone, intercalation of limestone and coal seam (20 to 150 cms).
Kayan Formation (Upper Oligocene)
Description: Quartz sandstone, shale, siltstone and conglomerate intercalations, silicified wood and minor coal .
Ketungau Formation (Upper Eocene)
Description: Sandstone and mudstone, thin coal seams in upper part.
Selangkai Formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Description: Shale, mudstone, sandstone, conglomarate, fossiliferrous limestone, rare coal genrally carbonaceous or calcareous.
Kuaro Formation (Eocene) 
Description: Shale sandstone, conglomerate, claystone, breccia, marl and limestone intercalated with coal.
Karangan Formation (Eocene)
Description: Conglomerate, sandstone, claystone intercalated with limestone and Lignite.
Kampung baru Formation (Pliocene)
Description: Sandy clay, marl and sand intercalated with coal and tuff .
Tebidah Formation (Lower Oligocene)
Description: Feldspathic lithareanite interbedded with mudstone and siltstone, thin coal seams in places.
Kantu Formation (Upper Eocene)
Description: Sandstone with minor conglomarate, ,mudstone in lower part, interbedded sandstone, siltstone, grey or red mudstone in upper part, locally coal seams.
Silat Shale (Upper Eocene to Lower Oligocene )
Description: Blake carbonaceous mudstone, shale, minor dark siltstone, fine to medium grained sandstone, at places thin coal seams.
Kelinjau Formation (Miocene)
Description: Mudstone, minor sandstone and volcano clastic rock, in places silicified wood and intercalations of coal.
Mentemoi Formation (Eocene to Oligocene)
Description: Lower part is sandstone, upper part is arokosic sandstone, fine to coarse grained reddish. Locally intercalated with quartz conglomerate and claystone with thin coal seams.
Batuayau Formation (Late Eocene)
Description: Sandstone, mudstone, siltstone, commonly carbonaceous, in places intercalation of coal and lignite
Anggota batugambing peanut Formation (Late Oligocene) 
Description: White and ghrey limestone, medium to coarse grained, rich in large forams, algae and coal.
Purukcahu Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene )
Description: Fossiliferrous claystone, dark grey siltstone containing small lenses and thin layered vitrinite coal.
Pulaubalang Formation (Middle Miocene)
Description: Quartz sandstone and grey wacke, claystone with limestone intercalation, tuff and coal.
Balikpapan Formation (Middle to Late Miocene) 
Description: Quartz sandstone and claystone with intercalation of siltstone, shale and limestone with lignite intercalations.
Pamaluan Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene )
Description: Sandstone with intercalation of claystone, shale, marl, siltstone, tuff, coal, Iron oxide and lenses of limestone, claystone with sandstone intercalation, thin coal seams in the lower sequence (25 to 75 Cms), in the upper part of sequence coal seam thickness is 0.5 to 5 Mts.
Montalat Formation (Oligocene)
Description: Cross bedded, white quartz sandstone, locally calcareous interbedded by siltstone, shale and coal.
Warukin Formation (Lower Miocene) 
Description: Sandstone (Tuffaceous and calcareous), siltstone and claystone interbedded with coal beds (0.3 to 2 mts)
Dahor Formation (Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene ) 
Description: Quartz sandstone with coal beds (0.3 to 3 Mts) with in coarse sandstone layers.
Berai Formation (Middle to Late Oligocene ) 
Description: Limestone interbedded by claystone, marl and coal. 


Pematang Formation (Oligocene to early Miocene ) 
Description: Carboneceous and red shale, Coal, siltstone, sandstone and breccio conglomerate
Lakat Formation (Oligocene to early Miocene ) 
Description: Lower part: polymict conglomerate, quartz sandstone and intercalated claystone, siltstone and tuff, with coal lenses. Upper part: alternating bands of quartz sandstone and silty carboneceous claystone with siderite nodules
Kelese Formation (Eocene)
Description: Light grey, brown and greenish, strongly lithified polymict conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone with intercalation of siltstone ,claystone and coal
Lower member of Ombilin Formation (Mio-Pliocene ) 
Description: Micaceous quartz sandstone,arkose,clayey shale Quartz conglomerate and coal
Upper member of Ombilin Formation (Miocene)
Description: Sandy claystone ,Tuffaceous sandstone, quartz sandstone, glauconite sandstone, marly sandstone, coal seams and conglomerate with andesitic components
Muaraenim Formation (Mio-Pliocene )
Description: Sandstone,sandy claystone,and Lignite which reaches upto 10% of the formation thickness
Sinamar Formation (Oligocene) 
Description: Conglomerate coarse grained quartz sandstone, Miceceous quartz sandstone, Arkosic sandstone. claystone, marl, sandy claystone, coal seams and coral limestone
Talangakar Formation (Oligocene)
Description: Brownish dark grey sandstone, Sandy tuff and tuffecious sandstone with uniformly distributed, lignite locally and intercalated clay stone. Yellowish white limestone lenses in the lower part of the formation.
Papanbeteopang Formation (Oligocene)
Description: Polymict conglomarate, sandstone, claystone, siltstone and breccia with intercalation of tuffaceous sandstone and claystone, coal
Airbenakat Formation (Miocene)
Description: Clay stone alternating with sandstone incalation of calcareous conglomarate, siltstone, marl and coal. In the upper part dominantly sandstone
Simpangaur Formation (Pliocene)
Description: Claystone, breccia, tuffaceous sandstone, sandstone contains mollusas with coal intercalations
Kasai Formation (Late Pliocene)
Description: Conglomarate and Quartz sandstone, tuffaceous claystone containing silicified wood with pumice tuff and lignite intercalations
Bintunan Formation (Late Pliocene)
Description: Polymict conglomarate sandstone, claystone, pumice tuff with lignite intercalations, claystone contains mollusus
Sihapas Formation (Miocene) 
Description: Clean quartz sandstones, carbanaceous shales, siltstones, conlomarates 
Telukkido Formation (Jurassic to Cretaceous)
Description: Pyritic feldspathic meta quartzos Arenites and Argillites, thin coal and plant remains
Kumun Formation (Mio-Pliocene)
Description: Sandstone, Conglomarate, breccia, Lignite and tuff intercalation
Lemau Formation (Miocene)
Description: Breccia, dacaoitic tuff, sandstone with lignite intercalation, claystone containing mollusus and calcareous sandstone
Ranggam Formation (Mio-Pliocene)
Description: Alternate sandstone, claystone and conglomarate with lenses of coal